A Critical Quantitative Analysis of Students’ Sense of Belonging: Perspectives on Race, Generation Status, and Collegiate Environments

Journal of College Student Development / April 2020

Group of people standing together

Guided by Astin’s I-E-O model and critical quantitative inquiry, we examined institutional environments that contributed to belongingness, especially for students from different racial groups, college generation statuses, and the intersection of both. Using multiple linear regression analyses, we analyzed data from 7,888 students and found that belonging was associated with participation in numerous collegiate environments. Moreover, significant results emerged for certain races, generation statuses, and groups at the intersection of both. Models were then run to discern the conditional effects of collegiate environments when considering the interactions between race and generation status. Findings revealed several conditional effects for groups at the intersections of these identities.